Definitions

Access / Accessibility (a function). The ability to reach one location from another.

Access for visitors (a sub-function). The ability of visitors to access remote work locations. Generally, this pertains to the trip from central places (e.g. a city or organizational center) to remote work locations. A visitor is a traveler who is temporarily at a remote work location for a relatively-short, fixed period of time.

Adequate understanding:

  • To possess a sufficient amount of suitable data on the functions pertaining to the effectiveness of aviation at advancing people’s work, and
  • To know how those data properly fit together (so leaders can use that understanding to make wise decisions).

Advance (work). Moving something forward or improving it. Making work happen faster, easier, or better.

Allowed. To let someone have or do something.

Amount of cargo acquirable (a sub-function). The mass and weight of cargo that can be acquired at a remote work location.

Axiom. A statement regarded as being true.

  • An axiom is a type of finding in which a truth is stated.
  • Example: “People traveling with children benefit more from aviation than those traveling without children.”

Benefit to attitudes about hard places (a sub-function). The benefit of transportation to people’s attitudes about living or working in locations that are difficult or unpleasant; locations that might be physically, culturally, or spiritually hard.

Benefit to families (a sub-function). The benefit of transportation to families.

Benefit to organizational image (a sub-function). The benefit of a transportation mode to the image of the organizations that use it.

Benefit to psychological wellbeing (a sub-function). The benefit of transportation to people’s psychological wellbeing. Psychological wellbeing pertains to: reassurance, confidence, encouragement, peace of mind, how people were doing in their heads overall. (In contrast, see Psychological health.)

Benefit to the user’s image (a sub-function). The benefit of a transportation mode to the image of the people who use it.

Benefit to work relationships (a sub-function). The benefit of transportation to the relationships associated with one’s work.

Cargo acquisition (a function). The ability to receive cargo at a remote work location.

Cargo security (a sub-function). To maintain a state of no cargo being stolen; to be in possession all of one’s cargo. Security pertains to things being stolen.

Central place. A city or town where higher-order goods and services (i.e. those more-expensive and less-often used) are obtained.

  • For example, medical care, administrative support, or commercial air service.
  • Central places are often a national or provincial capital, or a larger town.

Context (transportation). A geographic area defined by the predominant mode of surface transport used in that area. In the AER, the five basic transportation contexts were surveyed: the road, river, ocean, trail, and no-mode contexts. More information can be found in this PDF.

Conveyance. Something that serves as a physical means of transportation. A conveyance could be a vehicle, aircraft, boat, motorbike, animal, or any other type of physical means used for mobility. In contrast, the term “transportation mode” refers to a broad category of transport, commonly air, land, and water. Also see Mode.

Coordinating / administrating / managing (a sub-function). The tasks associated with coordinating activities, administrating entities, or managing programs. These tasks are generally carried out by people in mid- and upper-level positions.

Corollary. A statement of something that extends from, or is related to, an axiom or a principle.

Credibility. Being trusted or believed in.

Effectiveness. Achieving the desired result. In contrast, efficiency is using time, energy, and resources well.

The effect of multiplying (a sub-function). The perceived effect transportation might have on “multiplying people.” See Multiplying.

Effect on work if no air access (a sub-function). How a person’s work would be affected if there were no air service to their work location.

Efficiency. Using time, energy, and resources well. In contrast, effectiveness is achieving the desired result.

Emergency transport (a function). Transportation required to address an urgent situation, whether that situation is medical or non-medical in nature.

Enabled. To make something possible.

Facilitated. To make an action or process easy or easier.

Facilitation of work (a function). To make work easy or easier.

Far and near.

  • Far equates to traveling:
    • More than a few hours
    • Between a central place and a hinterland location
    • Between countries (i.e. regionally)
  • Near equates to traveling:
    • A few hours or less
    • Locally/within a city/within a village area
    • Local area travel is made to locations that are near.

Finding. “Finding” is used as a general, umbrella term, and includes all axioms, principles, corollaries, numbers, and all other information, derived from the data.

Flexible and timely travel (a sub-function). Having schedule flexibility (i.e. the ability to change travel plans) and the ability to travel on a schedule (i.e. to depart and arrive when needed).

Fostered. To encourage the development of something; often something desirable.

Frequency of access (a sub-function). How often someone can access a location within a given period of time.

Function. Missionary aviation has seven functions: 1) saving time, 2) preservation of health, energy, safety, and security, 3) access, 4) cargo acquisition, 5) facilitation of work, 6) emergency transport, and 7) psychosocial benefit. Within these seven functions are thirty sub-functions. A list of the sub-functions and a model showing how the seven functions relate to one another can be seen in this PDF.

Generate. To produce or create.

Geographic ministry area (GMA). A geographic territory in which ministry work is being done or is being considered. A GMA could consist of multiple countries, a single country, a portion of a country, a province, a region, or any other defined geographic area.

Getting people together (a sub-function). Transporting people so they can be in the same geographic location.

HESS. Health, energy, safety, and security. In the AER, these are considered to be resources which people can use on transport or on their work.

High travel requirements entails having to do at least four of the following:

  • Make many trips in a year
  • Visit many different locations
  • Travel throughout a large geographic area
  • Travel in a timely manner (i.e. depart and arrive on schedule)
  • Make one trip shortly after another (in close succession)
  • Make trips with short stays at destinations

To improve air access. This term is used in the correlations, and pertains only to air access. It means to:

  • Increase the frequency of air service to a location
  • Increase the number of locations served by air
  • Add air service to unserved locations with particularly-poor surface access (i.e. those which take the most time and HESS to access)
  • Make aviation available to more workers
  • Change aircraft to those with more-appropriate capacity (for passengers and cargo)

Improved access. This term is used in the ways tables, and pertains to access in general, whether by air or surface. Improved access refers to any of the following:

  • Making access possible (which is an improvement over no access)
  • Enabling more-frequent access
  • Enabling access to more locations
  • Enabling access to, or for, larger numbers of people

Inaccessible location. A location that cannot be physically accessed.

  • From a transportation standpoint, a location is inaccessible because accessing it would require more resources (e.g. time, health, energy, safety, security, or money) than one is willing, or able, to expend.

Isolated location. A location that is not spatially connected to a population center or an organizational center; one that is geographically separate, alone, by itself. That is, a location that does not share a boundary with, nor is next to, a population or organizational center.

Isolated people. People who are not connected to a population center or an organizational center; people who are separate, alone, by themselves.

  • People can be isolated:
    • Geographically. People whose location is not spatially connected to a population center or an organizational center. That is, their location does not share a boundary with, nor is next to, a population or organizational center.
    • Socially. People who have no interaction with other people.
  • If geographically-isolated people have communication or transport connections with a population center or with an organizational center, they are not a socially-isolated.

Large geographic circumstances entails:

  • Working in multiple locations
  • Working in a large geographic area
  • Traveling long distances

Local area travel. Travel that takes a few hours or less, and is within the local area, within a city or town, or within a village area. Local area travel is made to locations defined as “near.” See Near and Far.

Location (geographic).  A position on the Earth. Location can be either absolute or relative.

  • Absolute location is the position of an entity in a reference system (such as an address system) or on a graticule (a grid, such as latitude / longitude). For example, the international airport at Pt. Moresby, PNG, is located at 9°, 26’ south latitude; 147°, 13’ east longitude.
  • Relative location is the position of an entity relative to another entity. For example, the city of Pt. Moresby is located on Coral Sea.

Medevac. Medical evacuation. Air transport of someone with a critical medical condition requiring immediate treatment.

Medical transport. Transportation of someone with a non-critical medical condition requiring treatment.

Mere availability. Simply having aviation available for practical use. The term has no psychological aspects associated with it.

Mode. A means of supporting mobility. Commonly, modes are divided into three, broad categories: air, land, and water. However, in the AER, modes were simply divided into the categories of air and surface, because the effectiveness of aviation was being contrasted with the effectiveness of surface transport. To differentiate, a conveyance is something that serves as a physical means of transportation. A conveyance could be a vehicle, aircraft, boat, motorbike, animal, or any other type of physical means used for mobility.

Multi-mode context. A geographic area where multiple surface transport modes are used to reach work locations. For example, a person might take a bus to a certain point on its route, then walk on a trail to reach their work location.

Multiplying. When a transportation mode gives the perception of multiplying someone, that is, making it seem like “there’s more than one of them” or that they’re “everywhere at once.” This entails:

  • Enabling people to work in multiple locations
  • Enabling people to visit multiple locations within a short amount of time
  • Enabling people to work in geographically-distant locations

Nature (of a transportation program). This refers to transportation program as being either an air, land, or water program.

Near and far.

  • Near equates to traveling:
    • A few hours or less
    • Locally/within a city/within a village area
    • Local area travel is made to locations that are near.
  • Far equates to traveling:
    • More than a few hours
    • Between a central place and a hinterland location
    • Between countries (i.e. regionally)

No-mode context. A geographic area where there is no surface transport mode available, that is, where there is no land or water forms of transport available. In practical terms, the no-mode context is an area where there are no roads, navigable rivers, oceans, or trails to use.

  • Unless a well-equipped, well-funded, well-supported expedition is possible, it’s “fly or don’t go.” These are areas in which people generally do not travel by surface from central places to work locations.

Non-residential ministry. Ministry in which the workers do not live in the location(s) they are working at. That is, they have a home elsewhere and only visit the work location(s) for relatively short periods of time.

Ocean context. A geographic area where the predominant surface transport mode is the open-ocean. That is, where the open-ocean has to be traversed (traveled across) to reach a destination.

  • For the purposes of this research, the open-ocean is where wind, waves, and currents are not affected by land, regardless of the distance from shore.

People being in the work (a sub-function). The effect transportation might have on someone being where they are, doing the work they are doing. “Being in the work” entails people:

  • Being in the organization they are members of
  • Serving in the country they are working in
  • Being in the location (village or town) they are working in
  • Doing the specific work (ministry task) they are doing

Place. The distinguishing human or physical characteristics of a location.

  • For example, characteristics might include the language people speak, the type of vegetation, or the climate in a location.

Preservation of mental energy (a sub-function). To retain one’s mental energy. To maintain one’s ability to think, reason, and make decisions.

Preservation of physical energy (a sub-function). To retain one’s physical energy.

Preservation of physical health (a sub-function). To retain one’s physical health; to keep it intact. To not have one’s physical health degraded during travel by maladies such as dehydration, motion sickness, sunburn, stomach problems, or insect bites.

Preservation of psychological health (a sub-function). To retain one’s psychological health; to keep it intact. Psychological health pertains to: fear, anxiety, worry, sanity, or being relaxed. (In contrast, see Psychological wellbeing.)

Preservation of safety for cargo (a sub-function). To maintain a state of no cargo being lost, or damaged beyond use; to retain all of one’s cargo and to have it be usable.

Preservation of safety for people (a sub-function). To maintain a state of no bodily injury; to be without physical injury. Safety pertains to physical damage.

Prestige / respect. Used as synonyms. Admiration because of abilities or values.

Principle. A statement indicating how to apply an axiom.

  • For example, here’s an axiom: “People traveling with children benefit more from aviation than those traveling without children.” The principle of how to apply that axiom is: “Use aviation to benefit people traveling with children.”

Provided. To make available for use; to supply.

Provided access to. It physically transported someone or something; it happened.

Psychological health. Pertaining to: fear, anxiety, worry, sanity, or being relaxed.

Psychological wellbeing. Pertaining to: reassurance, confidence, encouragement, peace of mind, how people were doing in their heads overall.

Psychosocial benefit (a function). Benefits having psychological and social aspects.

Reliable transport. Transport that’s going to happen; you can plan on it, it’s dependable.

Remote location. A location that is relatively distant, or far away from, a primary population or organizational center.

Remote work location. A location (usually a village or small town), that is relatively distant, or far away from, a population or organizational center, where people are doing their work/ministry.

Resources. Used as a general term, resources refers to time, health, energy, safety, and security, which are resources people can either use on transport or on their work.

River context. A geographic area where the predominant surface transport mode is rivers.

  • It is understood the river context includes travel by land between rivers. In river contexts, people can either travel downriver to the confluence of (where it meets) a second river, and then up the second river to their destination, or they could go by land between the two rivers.

Road context. A geographic area where the predominant surface transport mode is roads.

  • Roads can consist of cleared, graded, or paved surfaces, or double-tracks that are not cleared, graded, or paved. For the purpose of this research, roads are surfaces on which four-wheeled vehicles could be driven.

Safety.

  • For people. No bodily harm or injury due to transport or crime.
  • For cargo. None lost, or damaged beyond use, due to transport.

Saving time (a function). Shortening the amount of time spent on an activity; not wasting time.

Saving time arranging transport (a sub-function). Shortening the amount of time spent arranging transport (e.g. finding a boat, arranging for a vehicle, hiring carriers).

Saving time resting and recovering (a sub-function). Shortening the amount of time needed to rest and recover after a trip. Reducing the time between arriving and starting work.

Saving travel time (a sub-function). Shortening the amount of time spent traveling.

Security against kidnapping (a sub-function). To maintain a state of no one being kidnapped.

Security for personal items (a sub-function). To maintain a state of no personal items being stolen; to be in possession all of one’s personal items (e.g. money, phone, handbag, glasses). Security pertains to things being stolen.

Serve or help. Mission aviation people and programs helping other agencies do the other agency’s activities.

Severe surface trips.

  • Surface trips that entail any, or all, of the following:
    • Particularly-long travel time
    • Considerable detriment to physical and psychological health
    • Near-total depletion of physical and mental energy
    • Significant risk to the physical safety of people and cargo
    • Significant risk to the security of cargo and personal items
    • Significant risk of kidnapping
  • In other words, surface trips that are particularly difficult, detrimental, demanding, or dangerous.
  • Put another way, trips that take the most time, and are “the worst” to make.

Shape (of a transportation program). Shape refers to the specific types/models of conveyances (aircraft, vehicles, or boats) to be used, how many of each, where they would be based, whom they would serve, the locations would they would serve, and the number and types of personnel.

Shared resource (aviation). When a non-aviation organization/agency uses aviation to do its own activities with missionary aircraft.

Short-term worker. A short-term worker is someone from outside the organization, who performs organizational duties for a specific length of time. These are people assigned to remote work locations and are based there (i.e. they live there) for a few days, weeks, or months. In the AER, short-term workers are not classified as visitors. See Visitor.

SMI Tool. Strengths Maximization Index Tool. A tool used to assess the level to which aviation’s inherent strengths would be maximized in a geographic ministry area (GMA). The tool itself, and more information about it, can be found on the Tools page.

Status. Relative social or professional standing.

Sub-function. There are thirty sub-functions within the seven functions of missionary aviation. A list of the sub-functions and a model showing how the seven functions relate to one another can be seen in this PDF.

Timeliness of cargo acquisition (a sub-function). The acquisition of cargo at a remote work location when, and as often, needed.

Timely manner (for cargo). When, and as often, needed.

Timely transport. Available when needed; at the most-appropriate time.

Trail context. A geographic area where the predominant surface transport mode is trails.

  • A trail is a single-track that can be traversed on foot, by a two- or three-wheeled vehicle, or by animal.

Transportation context. A geographic area defined by the predominant mode of surface transport used in that area. In the AER, the five basic transportation contexts were surveyed: the road, river, ocean, trail, and no-mode contexts.

Visitor. A traveler who does not have a residence/house/dwelling at their remote work location, and who is temporarily there for a relatively-short, fixed period of time. That is, visitors are people who travel out to:

  • Remote work locations (i.e. away from, distant from, the central place),
  • Have a relatively-short stay (e.g. 4 days or 1 month), and
  • Are usually there for a set length of time (they normally arrive and depart on specific dates)

Internal visitors are people who normally live and work within the geographic ministry area (GMA); External visitors come from outside the GMA.

In the AER, visitors are not classified as short-term workers. See short-term workers.

Work advancement. Work advancement entails the functions of access, cargo acquisition, facilitation of work, emergency transport, and psychosocial benefit. These five functions, taken together, comprise “work advancement” because their sub-functions are the means by which people’s work is advanced.

Work efficiency (a sub-function).  The degree to which someone can do their work without wasting time, energy, or other resources. It can also be thought of as the degree to which time, energy, or other resources are well-used in doing work.

Work location. A location where someone works. (See Remote work location.)

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